The term attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is often abbreviated as ADHD. It is a mental disorder under neurodevelopment. Patients have trouble with being attentive and controlling behavior. They also engage in excessive activity. Of all mental disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is the one most children are diagnosed with. However, the cause in most cases is never known. ADHD in children is not a problem in developed countries alone because it is now a global problem.
In order for a child to be diagnosed with this condition, symptoms must prevail for a period of more than six months. The symptoms must also be a source of inability to function in at least to settings. Common settings in which patients have trouble functioning are social, work, school, and home. One must also have attained the criteria for diagnosis before reaching the age of twelve years.
Children suffering from ADHD exhibit several different symptoms. The symptoms usually occur together at the same time, but not in all the cases. Patients often forget things, keep switching activities, miss details, and get easily distracted. They find it difficult to maintain focus on a single task, and they become bored with a task after a few minutes. They have trouble following instructions and understanding minor details. They often daydream, move slowly, and seem confused.
About 65 percent of all cases of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, the condition occurs alongside another mental disorder. Associated disorders include oppositional defiant disorder, Tourette syndrome, anxiety disorder, mood disorder, primary disorder of vigilance, and learning disability. Additional conditions include restless legs syndrome, obsessive-compulsive disorder, substance use disorder, and sleep disorder.
This condition has also been associated with language delay, developmental coordination disorder, and persistent bed wetting. Language delays consists of many disorders such as hardship following instructions, slow processing of spoken language, hardship listening in distracting environment, and weakness in short term auditory memory. Difficulty in telling the difference between normal and abnormal level of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity often make diagnosis difficult. Thus, most diagnoses are often made later in life.
Studies link attention deficient hyperactivity disorder to low intelligence quotient. Patients with the condition also score lowly in IQ tests. These findings have always been received with controversy because the low scores may be caused by distractibility and not intellectual incapability. More research is being done to understand why patients often score lowly in IQ tests.
ADHD falls into three key types – The first type is predominantly hyperactive-impulsive, while the second one is predominantly inattentive. The third type is a blend between the first two types. In most cases, what causes the condition is never known. However, genetic and environmental factors are strong causes. Brain trauma and infections are also believed to be causes, according to previous observations.
Bio – I am William, the guest author of this post. I work hard to fight ADHD in children. Attention deficient hyperactivity disorder cannot be treated, but rather is managed. Management typically involves medications or counseling or a combination of the two. Medications may cause some improvement in the long-term, but they do not eliminate negative outcomes completely. Some examples of medications used include stimulants, antidepressants, atomoxetine, and alpha-2 adrenergic receptor agonists.